Thirteen Kingdoms of the North

chart: Golden Age of the Thirteen Kingdoms of the North

Gwyr y Gogledd: the Men of the North

In the mid-sixth century, nine of these kingdoms in the "neck of Britain"
were ruled by Coel Hen's descendants...
who intermarried with the rulers of the other four realms --
Gododdin, Lleuddiniawn, Ystrad Clud, and Novant.

Altogether, they were called the Men of the North
by the folk of their distant kin in Gwynedd (later Wales) to the south.
Sometimes these kings allied against a mutual enemy,
but more often they bickered and feuded among themselves.

This expanded chart includes the realm of Gwynedd in the left-most kingdom column.
The realm of Gwynedd kept its sovereignty longer than did their northern kin,
so from the Welsh come most of the fragmentary legends about the Men of the North.

To the north of Hadrian's Wall, the realms
of Gododdin, Lleuddiniawn, Ystrad Clud, and Novant
never fell to the Anglo-Saxons.
Cut off from their kin in Gwynedd (and later sacked by vikings)
knowledge about these northern-most remnants of the Golden Age
soon faded into the murky past.

The Brits came to use the letter W to represent the vowel "ooh"
so Gwyr is pronounced "GOO-ur."

When in an unstressed syllable, Y is a neutral "ih" vowel.

Double D is sounded like "th" in "the," "that," or "this" but not like in "with."
Gogledd is pronounced "GO-gleth" with the accent on the first syllable.